Expressionism (410)

Expressionism was a cultural movement originating in Germany at the start of the 20th-century as a reaction to positivism and other artistic movements such as naturalism and impressionism. It sought to express the meaning of "being alive" and emotional experience rather than physical reality. It is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect, it is a subjective art form.

Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including: painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grunewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works.

Although it is used as a term of reference, there has never been a distinct movement that called itself "expressionism", apart from the use of the term by Herwarth Walden in his polemic magazine Der Sturm in 1912. The term is usually linked to paintings and graphic work in Germany at the turn of the century which challenged the academic traditions, particularly through the Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter groups. Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche played a key role in originating modern expressionism by clarifying and serving as a conduit for previously neglected currents in ancient art.

In The Birth of Tragedy Nietzsche presented his theory of the ancient dualism between two types of aesthetic experience, namely the Apollonian and the Dionysian, a dualism between the plastic "art of sculpture", of lyrical dream-inspiration, identity (the principium individuationis), order, regularity, and calm repose, and, on the other hand, the non-plastic "art of music", of intoxication, forgetfulness, chaos, and the ecstatic dissolution of identity in the collective. The analogy with the world of the Greek gods typifies the relationship between these extremes: two godsons, incompatible and yet inseparable. According to Nietzsche, both elements are present in any work of art. The basic characteristics of expressionism are Dionysian: bold colours, distorted forms-in-dissolution, two-dimensional, without perspective.

More generally the term refers to art that expresses intense emotion. It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there is a long line of art production in which heavy emphasis is placed on communication through emotion. Such art often occurs during time of social upheaval, and through the tradition of graphic art there is a powerful and moving record of chaos in Europe from the 15th century on the Protestant Reformation, Peasants' War, Eight Years' War, Spanish Occupation of the Netherlands, the rape, pillage and disaster associated with countless periods of chaos and oppression are presented in the documents of the printmaker. Often the work is unimpressive aesthetically, but almost without exception has the capacity to move the viewer to strong emotions with the drama and often horror of the scenes depicted.

The term was also coined by Czech art historian Antonin Matejcek in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself....(An Expressionist rejects) immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures.... Impressions and mental images that pass through mental peoples soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols." (Gordon, 1987)

The movement primarily originated in Germany and Austria. There were a number of Expressionist groups in painting, including the Blaue Reiter and Die Brucke. The Der Blaue Reiter group was based in Munich and Die Brucke was based originally in Dresden (although some later moved to Berlin). Die Brucke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter which was only truly together for a year (1912). The Expressionists had many influences, among them Munch, Vincent van Gogh, and African art. They also came to know the work being done by the Fauves in Paris.

Influenced by the Fauves, Expressionism worked with arbitrary colors as well as jarring compositions. In reaction and opposition to French impressionism which focused on rendering the sheer visual appearance of objects, Expressionist artists sought to capture emotions and subjective interpretations: It was not important to reproduce an aesthetically pleasing impression of the artistic subject matter, the Expressonists focused on capturing vivid emotional reactions through powerful colors and dynamic compositions instead. The leader of Der Blaue Reiter, Kandinsky, would take this a step further. He believed that with simple colors and shapes the spectator could perceive the moods and feelings in the paintings, therefore he made the move to abstraction.

Expressionist imagery exploded into modern art from the subconscious. Its diverse formal means and emotional effects range from anguish to exuberance. As the powerful, personal creations of modern individuals, these images have little in common except their inventive power and their reliance upon a distinctly private vision.

In late 1939, at the beginning of World War II, New York welcomed a great number of leading European artists.

The heritage of their interest in the mythic realm of the unconscious would be continued-and extended-by another group of younger, New World artists-New York School.

American Expressionism and American Figurative Expressionism particularly the Boston figurative expressionism were an integral part of American modernism around the Second World War.

Major figurative Boston expressionists included: Karl Zerbe, Hyman Bloom, Jack Levine, David Aronson, Philip Guston. The Boston figurative expressionists post World War II were increasingly marginalized by the development of abstract expressionism centered in New York City.

Later in the 20th century, after World War II, figurative expressionism influenced worldwide a large number of artists and movements. Thomas B. Hess, wrote:

"the 'New figurative painting' which some have been expecting as a reaction against Abstract Expressionism was implicit in it at the start, and is one of its most lineal continuities."

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Ad Parnassum

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,799

In The Bazar

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Die Zwitscher-Maschine

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Market In Tunis

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 212,089

Couple At The Garden Table

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 216,679

Fish Magic

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

The Goldfish

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 235,019

Türkisches Café

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 257,949

Der Kunftige

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Turkish Cafe I

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 237,319

Senecio

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 209,799

Children With Goat

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 237,319

Tunesian Gardens

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Woman With A Yellow Jacket

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 244,189

Cat And Bird

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 241,899

The Lady In The Green Jacket

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 202,919

Pflanze Und Fenster Stilleben

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 226,439

Promenade

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 217,009

Couple In The Forest

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 202,919

Insula Dulcamara

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 287,759

Flower Myth

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 269,419

Lady In A Park 1914

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 257,949

Modefenster

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Struck From The List

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,139

Tänzerin

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 216,679

Rokoko

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 202,919

The Singer

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 244,189

Russian Ballet I

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Angelus Novus

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,139

Three Girls In Yellow Straw Hats I

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 235,019

Town Castle Kr.

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 218,969

Four Girls

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Geschwister

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 246,489

Girl Under Trees

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Death And Fire

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 207,509

Zoological Garden I 1912

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 268,889

Walk On The Bridge 1913

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 221,719

Castle And Sun

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 216,679

Heiliger Bezirk

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Walk On The Bridge

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 221,259

Park Bei Lu

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 239,609

Women In A Park - With A White Parasol

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Forest Witches

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Leute Am Blauen See (1913)

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 223,559

Heroic Roses

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Woman With Fishbowl

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 226,439

Oh! These Rumors!

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Large, Well-Lit Shop Window

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Sollte Steigen

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 244,189

Woman With Umbrella In Front Of A Hat Shop (1914)

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 218,969

Fashion Shop

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 217,009

Around The Fish

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Strong Dream

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Milliner's Shop

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 223,559

Two Women In Front Of A Hat Shop

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Abstruse

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,139

Pandean-Sweet Morning

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 248,779

Circus 1913

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Picture Of A Garden In Dark Colours

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Tightrope Walker (1914)

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Poisonous Berries

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 264,829

Tightrope Walker

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,139

May Picture

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 218,969

Pierrot

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 221,259

Red Balloon

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 205,209

Farewell

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Glashäuser Viertel

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 239,609

Girls Bathing (1913)

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 223,559

Indians On Horsebacks 1911

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Flower Garden

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 246,489

Flowers In The Vase

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,139

Storm 1911

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Gartenfigur

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Boy With Book And Toys

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 221,259

Hollow Outlook

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,799

Two Girls

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 223,559

Friendly Place

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Bathing Girls With The Town In The Background), 1913

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 223,559

Fright Of A Girl

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Children With Goat

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 246,489

Girl In Mourning

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 230,439

Adam And Eve

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 226,439

Algeria Market 1914

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Hammamet With Its Mosque

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 207,509

Heroic Strokes Of The Bow

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Market In Tunis Ii

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 221,259

Blond Girl With Doll

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 237,319

Hitze

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,139

In The Current Six Thresholds

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 202,919

Blue Girl Reading

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 228,139

Redgreen And Violet-Yellow Rhythms

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 212,089

Children At The Fountain Ii 1910

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 232,729

Revolution Of The Viaduct

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 221,259

Church Decorated With Flags

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 244,189

Signs In Yellow

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 262,539

Color Composition

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 223,559

Southern Gardens

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Colored Composition Large Flower Carpet

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 225,849

Static-Dynamic Gradation

By Paul Klee
Sizes starting at
₩ 241,899

Colored Composition Of Forms, 1914

By August Macke
Sizes starting at
₩ 221,259

Expressionism (410)

Expressionism was a cultural movement originating in Germany at the start of the 20th-century as a reaction to positivism and other artistic movements such as naturalism and impressionism. It sought to express the meaning of "being alive" and emotional experience rather than physical reality. It is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect, it is a subjective art form.

Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including: painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grunewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works.

Although it is used as a term of reference, there has never been a distinct movement that called itself "expressionism", apart from the use of the term by Herwarth Walden in his polemic magazine Der Sturm in 1912. The term is usually linked to paintings and graphic work in Germany at the turn of the century which challenged the academic traditions, particularly through the Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter groups. Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche played a key role in originating modern expressionism by clarifying and serving as a conduit for previously neglected currents in ancient art.

In The Birth of Tragedy Nietzsche presented his theory of the ancient dualism between two types of aesthetic experience, namely the Apollonian and the Dionysian, a dualism between the plastic "art of sculpture", of lyrical dream-inspiration, identity (the principium individuationis), order, regularity, and calm repose, and, on the other hand, the non-plastic "art of music", of intoxication, forgetfulness, chaos, and the ecstatic dissolution of identity in the collective. The analogy with the world of the Greek gods typifies the relationship between these extremes: two godsons, incompatible and yet inseparable. According to Nietzsche, both elements are present in any work of art. The basic characteristics of expressionism are Dionysian: bold colours, distorted forms-in-dissolution, two-dimensional, without perspective.

More generally the term refers to art that expresses intense emotion. It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there is a long line of art production in which heavy emphasis is placed on communication through emotion. Such art often occurs during time of social upheaval, and through the tradition of graphic art there is a powerful and moving record of chaos in Europe from the 15th century on the Protestant Reformation, Peasants' War, Eight Years' War, Spanish Occupation of the Netherlands, the rape, pillage and disaster associated with countless periods of chaos and oppression are presented in the documents of the printmaker. Often the work is unimpressive aesthetically, but almost without exception has the capacity to move the viewer to strong emotions with the drama and often horror of the scenes depicted.

The term was also coined by Czech art historian Antonin Matejcek in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself....(An Expressionist rejects) immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures.... Impressions and mental images that pass through mental peoples soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols." (Gordon, 1987)

The movement primarily originated in Germany and Austria. There were a number of Expressionist groups in painting, including the Blaue Reiter and Die Brucke. The Der Blaue Reiter group was based in Munich and Die Brucke was based originally in Dresden (although some later moved to Berlin). Die Brucke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter which was only truly together for a year (1912). The Expressionists had many influences, among them Munch, Vincent van Gogh, and African art. They also came to know the work being done by the Fauves in Paris.

Influenced by the Fauves, Expressionism worked with arbitrary colors as well as jarring compositions. In reaction and opposition to French impressionism which focused on rendering the sheer visual appearance of objects, Expressionist artists sought to capture emotions and subjective interpretations: It was not important to reproduce an aesthetically pleasing impression of the artistic subject matter, the Expressonists focused on capturing vivid emotional reactions through powerful colors and dynamic compositions instead. The leader of Der Blaue Reiter, Kandinsky, would take this a step further. He believed that with simple colors and shapes the spectator could perceive the moods and feelings in the paintings, therefore he made the move to abstraction.

Expressionist imagery exploded into modern art from the subconscious. Its diverse formal means and emotional effects range from anguish to exuberance. As the powerful, personal creations of modern individuals, these images have little in common except their inventive power and their reliance upon a distinctly private vision.

In late 1939, at the beginning of World War II, New York welcomed a great number of leading European artists.

The heritage of their interest in the mythic realm of the unconscious would be continued-and extended-by another group of younger, New World artists-New York School.

American Expressionism and American Figurative Expressionism particularly the Boston figurative expressionism were an integral part of American modernism around the Second World War.

Major figurative Boston expressionists included: Karl Zerbe, Hyman Bloom, Jack Levine, David Aronson, Philip Guston. The Boston figurative expressionists post World War II were increasingly marginalized by the development of abstract expressionism centered in New York City.

Later in the 20th century, after World War II, figurative expressionism influenced worldwide a large number of artists and movements. Thomas B. Hess, wrote:

"the 'New figurative painting' which some have been expecting as a reaction against Abstract Expressionism was implicit in it at the start, and is one of its most lineal continuities."

Read more
Page