Realism (324)

Realism in the visual arts is a style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. The term is used in different senses in art history, it may mean the same as illusionism, the representation of subjects with visual mimesis or verisimilitude, or may mean an emphasis on the actuality of subjects, depicting them without idealization, and not omitting their sordid aspects. Works may be realist in either of these senses, or both. Use of the two senses can be confusing, but depending on context the second sense is perhaps more common.

Realism as a tendency in 19th century art was related to similar movements in the theatre, literature and opera. All emphasized the depiction of everyday subjects, but by no means always discarding classical, Romantic or sentimental approaches to their treatment. The movement began in the 1850s in France. One of Gustave Courbet's most important works is A Burial at Ornans, 1849-1850, a canvas recording an event which he witnessed in September 1848. Courbet's painting of the funeral of his grand uncle became the first grand statement of the Realist style.

Realism in the illusionistic sense appears in art as early as 2400 BC in the city of Lothal in what is now India, and examples can be found throughout the history of art - Ancient Egyptian art had rigid and artificial conventions for the depiction of the human figure, but minor figures and animals are often very well-observed, and lifelike. In the broadest sense, realism in a work of art exists wherever something has been well observed and accurately depicted, even if the work as a whole does not strictly conform to the conditions of realism.

The art of ancient Greece made particular progress in developing realistic depictions of both the human figure and its surroundings, in sculpture and painting. In the Late Antique period realism largely ceased to be a priority for artists, and the recovery of the realist tradition is a constant strand in the history of Western medieval art.

For example, the proto-Renaissance painter Giotto di Bondone brought a new realism to the art of painting by rendering physical space and volume far more convincingly than his Gothic predecessors. His paintings, like theirs, represented biblical scenes and the lives of the saints. In the Early Renaissance, the development of a system of linear perspective in Italy, and the inclusion of naturalistic detail in Early Netherlandish painting both contributed to the advance of realism in Western painting in different ways.

In the late 16th century, the prevailing mode in European art was Mannerism, an artificial art of elongated figures in graceful but unlikely poses. Caravaggio emerged to change the direction of art by depicting religious figures as the Italian poor in their natural surroundings, though composed with Baroque energy.

A fondness for humble subjects and homely details characterizes much of Dutch art, and Rembrandt is an outstanding realist in the naturalist sense with his renunciation of the ideal and his embrace of the life around him. In the 19th century a group of French landscape artists known as the Barbizon School emphasized close observation of nature, paving the way for the Impressionists.

In England the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood rejected what they saw as the formulaic idealism of the followers of Raphael, which led some of them to an art of intense illusionistic, and sometimes naturalistic, realism. The final years and aftermath of the First World War saw a return of realism and of styles dating back to before Post-Impressionism, in the so-called "Return to Order" - this became known as "Neo-Realism" or "Modern Realism" in England (led by Meredith Frampton, Charles Ginner, Harold Gilman and the Euston Road School), traditionisme in France (led by Andre Derain) and "Neue Sachlichkeit" (led by Otto Dix and Christian Schad) and "Magic Realism" in Germany.

Trompe l'oeil (literally, "fool the eye"), a technique which creates the illusion that the objects depicted actually exist, is an extreme example of artistic realism. Examples of this tendency can be found in art from antiquity to the present day

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A Burial at Ornans

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 12,179

In A Roman Osteria

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,419

Samson And The Philistines

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,629

The Bathers 1853

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,209

Christ The Consolator

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,629

The Meeting Or "Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet" 1854

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,849

Christ And Child

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,539

The artist's Studio

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 8,449

The Resurrection

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,629

The Sleepers 1866

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,859

Suffer The Children

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,139

The Wave 1869

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,459

Christ On The Cross

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,349

Les Demoiselles Des Bords De La Seine 1856

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,939

The Desperate Man 1843

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,019

Jesus Tempted

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,679

The Doubting Thomas

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 8,229

The Wheat Sifters 1854

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,059

Christ In Gethsemane

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,699

Young Ladies of the Village

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,109

The Sermon On The Mount

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,069

La Sieste

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,929

Jesus Casting Out The Money Changers At The Temple

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,419

Louis Gueymard as Robert Le Diable 1857

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,219

The Burial

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,419

Fox in the Snow 1860

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,539

The Last Supper

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,349

Fox Caught in a Trap 1860

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,999

The Denial Of Peter

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,279

Three Young Englishwomen by a Window 1865

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,929

The Twelve Year Old Jesus In The Temple

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,609

A Young Woman Reading

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,349

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Et Ses Enfants

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,559

Woman At The Well

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,769

The Birth Of Jesus

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,699

Portait De Baudelaire

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,119

An Angel Comforting Jesus Before His Arrest In The Garden Of Gethsemane

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,279

Jo, La Belle Irlandaise

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,939

The Sheperds And The Angel

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,009

Jo, the Beautiful Irish Girl 1866

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,119

Christ Healing The Sick

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,489

The Wrestlers 1853

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,559

A Monk Examines Himself In A Mirror

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,559

Lovers in the Countryside 1844

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,269

Two Wives Talking Together

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,769

The Bohemian and Her Children

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,759

Hunter On Horseback 1864

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,869

Two Old Men Sitting In The Shadow, Hornbæk

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,489

A Young Baker Cooling Down

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,909

La Sieste

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,729

Old Men In A Public House

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 9,349

Femme Dans Un Hamac

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,109

The Actor Kristian Mantzius In His Study

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,139

The Trout 1872

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,909

A Meal Two Boys And A Grandmother Tasting The Potato Soup

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,349

Deer Running in the Snow

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,629

Fishing Families Waiting For Their Men To Return From An Incipient Storm

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,329

The Woman in the Waves 1868

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,939

The Sailor

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,839

The Young Bather 1866

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,359

A Fisherboy

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,559

Bather Sleeping by a Brook 1845

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,109

Head Of An Italian Boy

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,349

Nude with Flowering Branch 1863

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,019

Woman with a Parrot 1866

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 8,079

Moonlight

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,809

Evening Landscape With A House And Garden By The Sea Ellekilde

By Carl Heinrich Bloch
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,809

Femme Nue Couchée 1862

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,389

Femme Endormie

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,109

Nude Woman with a Dog

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,109

Woman with White Stockings 1861

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,109

The Source 1862

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 8,199

Gypsy in Reflection 1869

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,349

The Man Made Mad with Fear

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,349

The Black Rocks at Trouville

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,939

La Trombe

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,929

La Vague

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,159

La Vague

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,219

The Waterspout 1870

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,339

La Falaise

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,239

Squall On the Horizon

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,159

After the Storm, 1872

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,729

Beach Scene with a Boat

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,819

Calm Sea 1866

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,809

Low Tide at Trouville 1865

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,999

The Calm Sea 1869

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,869

Marine

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,869

The Seaside at Palavas 1854

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,869

The Sea 1865

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,869

The Wave 1869

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,989

Mar Borrascoso 1850

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,989

The Wave

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,049

Waves 1870

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,989

Autumn Sea 1867

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,159

The Wave 1869

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,299

Marine 1869

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,339

The Wave 1871

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,539

Waves 1869

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 7,509

Les Bords De La Mer À Palavas 1854

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 5,929

Bords De La Mer, Palavas

By Gustave Courbet
Sizes starting at
NT$ 6,239

Realism (324)

Realism in the visual arts is a style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. The term is used in different senses in art history, it may mean the same as illusionism, the representation of subjects with visual mimesis or verisimilitude, or may mean an emphasis on the actuality of subjects, depicting them without idealization, and not omitting their sordid aspects. Works may be realist in either of these senses, or both. Use of the two senses can be confusing, but depending on context the second sense is perhaps more common.

Realism as a tendency in 19th century art was related to similar movements in the theatre, literature and opera. All emphasized the depiction of everyday subjects, but by no means always discarding classical, Romantic or sentimental approaches to their treatment. The movement began in the 1850s in France. One of Gustave Courbet's most important works is A Burial at Ornans, 1849-1850, a canvas recording an event which he witnessed in September 1848. Courbet's painting of the funeral of his grand uncle became the first grand statement of the Realist style.

Realism in the illusionistic sense appears in art as early as 2400 BC in the city of Lothal in what is now India, and examples can be found throughout the history of art - Ancient Egyptian art had rigid and artificial conventions for the depiction of the human figure, but minor figures and animals are often very well-observed, and lifelike. In the broadest sense, realism in a work of art exists wherever something has been well observed and accurately depicted, even if the work as a whole does not strictly conform to the conditions of realism.

The art of ancient Greece made particular progress in developing realistic depictions of both the human figure and its surroundings, in sculpture and painting. In the Late Antique period realism largely ceased to be a priority for artists, and the recovery of the realist tradition is a constant strand in the history of Western medieval art.

For example, the proto-Renaissance painter Giotto di Bondone brought a new realism to the art of painting by rendering physical space and volume far more convincingly than his Gothic predecessors. His paintings, like theirs, represented biblical scenes and the lives of the saints. In the Early Renaissance, the development of a system of linear perspective in Italy, and the inclusion of naturalistic detail in Early Netherlandish painting both contributed to the advance of realism in Western painting in different ways.

In the late 16th century, the prevailing mode in European art was Mannerism, an artificial art of elongated figures in graceful but unlikely poses. Caravaggio emerged to change the direction of art by depicting religious figures as the Italian poor in their natural surroundings, though composed with Baroque energy.

A fondness for humble subjects and homely details characterizes much of Dutch art, and Rembrandt is an outstanding realist in the naturalist sense with his renunciation of the ideal and his embrace of the life around him. In the 19th century a group of French landscape artists known as the Barbizon School emphasized close observation of nature, paving the way for the Impressionists.

In England the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood rejected what they saw as the formulaic idealism of the followers of Raphael, which led some of them to an art of intense illusionistic, and sometimes naturalistic, realism. The final years and aftermath of the First World War saw a return of realism and of styles dating back to before Post-Impressionism, in the so-called "Return to Order" - this became known as "Neo-Realism" or "Modern Realism" in England (led by Meredith Frampton, Charles Ginner, Harold Gilman and the Euston Road School), traditionisme in France (led by Andre Derain) and "Neue Sachlichkeit" (led by Otto Dix and Christian Schad) and "Magic Realism" in Germany.

Trompe l'oeil (literally, "fool the eye"), a technique which creates the illusion that the objects depicted actually exist, is an extreme example of artistic realism. Examples of this tendency can be found in art from antiquity to the present day

Read more
Page