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Post-Impressionism (1020)

Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Manet.

Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brushstrokes and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

The Post Impressionists were dissatisfied with the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the systematic use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cezanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to "make of Impressionism something solid and durable, like the art of the museums". He achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the bright fresh colours of Impressionism. The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid 1880s and the early 1890s. Discontented with what he referred to as romantic Impressionism, he investigated Pointillism which he called scientific Impressionism before returning to a purer Impressionism in the last decade of his life. Vincent van Gogh used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post-Impressionist artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement. Younger painters during the 1890s and early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various stylistic categories, such as Fauvism and Cubism.

The term was coined in 1910 by Roger Fry in the title of an exhibition of modern French painters, organized by Fry in London. Most of the artists in the exhibition were younger than the Impressionists. Fry later explained: "For purposes of convenience, it was necessary to give these artists a name, and I chose, as being the vaguest and most non-committal, the name of Post-Impressionism. This merely stated their position in time relatively to the Impressionist movement." John Rewald, one of the first professional art historians to focus on the birth of early modern art, limited the scope to the years between 1886 and 1892 in his pioneering publication on Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin (1956): Rewald considered it to continue his History of Impressionism (1946), and pointed out that a "subsequent volume dedicated to the second half of the post-impressionist period"-Post-Impressionism: From Gauguin to Matisse-was to follow, extending the period covered to other artistic movements derived from Impressionism and confined to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rewald focused on outstanding early Post-Impressionists active in France: on Van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, Redon, and their relations as well as the artistic circles they frequented (or they were in opposition to):

* Neo-Impressionism: ridiculed by contemporary art critics as well as artists as Pointillism, Seurat and Signac would have preferred other terms: Divisionism for example.
* Cloisonnism: a short-lived term introduced in 1888 by the art critic Edouard Dujardin, was to promote the work of Louis Anquetin, and was later also applied to contemporary works of his friend emile Bernard.
* Synthetism: another short-lived term coined in 1889 to distinguish recent works of Gauguin and Bernard from that of more traditional Impressionists exhibiting with them at the Cafe Volpini.
* Pont-Aven School: implying little more than that the artists involved had been working for a while in Pont-Aven or elsewhere in Brittany.
* Symbolism: a term highly welcomed by vanguard critics in 1891, when Gauguin dropped Synthetism as soon as he was acclaimed to be the leader of Symbolism in painting.

Furthermore, in his introduction to Post-Impressionism, Rewald opted for a second volume featuring Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Rousseau "le Douanier", Les Nabis and Cezanne as well as the Fauves, the young Picasso and Gauguin's last trip to the South-Sea, it was to expand the period covered at least into the first decade of the 20th century-yet this second volume remained unfinished.In a basic sense, the term "Romanticism" has been used to refer to certain artists, poets, writers, musicians, as well as political, philosophical and social thinkers of the late 18th and early to mid 19th centuries. It has equally been used to refer to various artistic, intellectual, and social trends of that era. Despite this general usage of the term, a precise characterization and specific definition of Romanticism have been the subject of debate in the fields of intellectual history and literary history throughout the twentieth century, without any great measure of consensus emerging. Arthur Lovejoy attempted to demonstrate the difficulty of this problem in his seminal article "On The Discrimination of Romanticisms" in his Essays in the History of Ideas (1948), some scholars see Romanticism as essentially continuous with the present, some see in it the inaugural moment of modernity, some see it as the beginning of a tradition of resistance to the Enlightenment-a Counter-Enlightenment-and still others place it firmly in the direct aftermath of the French Revolution. An earlier definition comes from Charles Baudelaire: "Romanticism is precisely situated neither in choice of subject nor exact truth, but in the way of feeling."

Reviews and adjustments
Rewald wrote that "the term 'Post-Impressionism' is not a very precise one, though a very convenient one." Convenient, when the term is by definition limited to French visual arts derived from Impressionism since 1886. Rewald's approach to historical data was narrative rather than analytic, and beyond this point he believed it would be sufficient to "let the sources speak for themselves."

Rival terms like Modernism or Symbolism were never as easy to handle, for they covered literature, architecture and other arts as well, and they expanded to other countries.

* Modernism thus, is now considered to be the central movement within international western civilization with its original roots in France, going back beyond the French Revolution to the Age of Enlightenment.
* Symbolism, however, is considered to be a concept which emerged a century later in France, and implied an individual approach. Local national traditions as well as individual settings therefore could stand side by side, and from the very beginning a broad variety of artists practising some kind of symbolic imagery, ranged between extreme positions: The Nabis for example united to find synthesis of tradition and brand new form, while others kept to traditional, more or less academic forms, when they were looking for fresh contents: Symbolism is therefore often linked to fanatastic, esoteric, erotic and other non-realist subject matter.

To meet the recent discussion, the connotations of the term 'Post-Impressionism' were challenged again: Alan Bowness and his collaborators expanded the period covered to 1914, but limited their approach widely on the 1890s to France. Other European countries are pushed back to standard connotations, and Eastern Europe is completely excluded.

So, while a split may be seen between classical 'Impressionism' and 'Post-Impressionism' in 1886, the end and the extend of 'Post-Impressionism' remains under discussion. For Bowness and his contributors as well as for Rewald, 'Cubism' was an absolutely fresh start, and so Cubism has been seen in France since the beginning, and later in Anglosaxonia. Meanwhile Eastern European artists, however, did not care so much for western traditions, and proceeded to manners of painting called abstract and suprematic-terms expanding far into the 20th century.

Conclusion
According to the present state of discussion, Post-Impressionism is a term best used within Rewald's definition in a strictly historical manner, concentrating on French art between 1886 and 1914, and re-considering the altered positions of impressionist painters like Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Renoir, and others-as well as all new brands at the turn of the century: from Cloisonnism to Cubism. The declarations of war, in July/August 1914, indicate probably far more than the beginning of a World War-they signal a major break in European cultural history, too.

Read more

Terrace of a café at night (Place du Forum)

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$219

A Sunday On La Grande Jatte 1884

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$249

Where Do We Come From? Who are We? Where are We Going?

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$349

Surprised

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

The Starry Night

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

Bathers At Asnières

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$249

Spirit of the Dead Watching

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

The Sleeping Gypsy

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$249

Starry Night Over The Rhone

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

The Channel Of Gravelines, Petit Fort Philippe

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

The Yellow Christ

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$219

The Dream (Le Rêve)

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$239

Country Road In Provence By Night 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$219

Entrance Of The Port Of Honfleur

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Nafea Faaipoipo (When are you Getting Married?)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Two lions on the lookout in the jungle

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

The Snake Charmer

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

A Wheatfield With Cypress 1889

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

The Canal Of Gravelines, In The Direction Of The Sea

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$239

Nevermore O TaïTi

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$279

Green Wheat Field With Cypress (1889)

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$219

The Canal Of Gravelines, In The Direction Of The Sea

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Two Tahitian Women with Mango Flowers

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

The-Ship-in-the-Tempest

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$239

Vision of the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Myself, Landscape Portrait

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$219

Wheat Field With Cypresses 1889

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

Port-En-Bessin, Entrance To The Harbor 1888

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Field With Irises Near Arles

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

Harbour Entrance At Honfleur, 1886

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Vincent Van Gogh Painting Sunflowers

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Foreign Powers Coming to Greet the Republic as a Sign of Peace

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

The Harvest With Blue Cart 1888

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

La Rade De Grandcamp (Le Port De Grandcamp)

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Ia Orana Maria (Hail Mary)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

The Equatorial Jungle

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

Green Wheat Fields, Auvers 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

The Channel At Gravelines, Evening

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Parau Api. What News

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Exotic Landscape

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

The Sower (Sower At Sunset) 1888

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

Harbour At Port-En-Bessin At High Tide

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Tahitian Woman with a Flower

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$239

Monkeys and Parrot in the Virgin Forest

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$209

Wheat Field With Reaper, Auvers 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

Port-En-Bessin

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Tahitian Women on the Beach

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$239

The Merry Jesters

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$239

Les Vessenots In Auvers

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

Grand Fort-Philippe

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Mahana No Atua (Day of the God) 1894

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$239

Fight-between-a-Tiger-and-a-Buffalo,-1908

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

Vahine No Te Vi (Woman with Mango)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$249

In a Tropical Forest-Struggle between Tiger and Bull

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$219

Corn Harvest In Provence

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$219

The Lighthouse At Honfleur

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Wheatfield 1888

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

The River Seine At La Grande-Jatte

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Vahine No Te Miti Woman At the Beach

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$219

Tropical Forest with Apes and Snake

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

La Seine À La Grande Jatte

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Piti Teina (Two Sisters)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Horse Attacked by a Jaguar

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$249

Wheatfield Under Thunderclouds 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$289

Seated Figures

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$249

Pastorales Tahitiennes

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Exotic Landscape

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$219

Wheatfield With Crows 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$289

Bridge Of Courbevoie

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Contes Barbares (Barbarian-Tales)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$239

The Waterfall

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$219

Landscape At Twilight 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$289

La Luzerne, Saint-Denis

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$229

Fatata Te Miti (By the Sea)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Scouts Attacked by a Tiger

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$239

The Plain Of Auvers 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$289

Circus Sideshow, 1887

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$249

PoèMes Barbares (Barbarian Poems)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Apes in the Orange Grove

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$239

Exotic Landscape with Lion and Lioness

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

Tree Roots 1890

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$289

The Circus

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Farmhouse In Provence

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$239

Can-Can

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Parau Na Te Varua Ino (Words of the Devil)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Virgin forest at sunset

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$279

Faaturuma (Melancholic)

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

The Repast of the Lion

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

Red Vineyard At Arles (Montmajour) 1888

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

Young Woman Powdering Herself

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

Field With Plowing Farmers

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$229

The Ladies' Man (L'homme À Femmes)

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$249

The Siesta

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$239

Hungry Lion Attacking an Antelope

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$229

Vineyards At Auvers

By Vincent Van Gogh
Sizes starting at
$219

Models (Poseuses)

By Georges Seurat
Sizes starting at
$219

E Haere Oe I Hia (Where are you Going?), 1892

By Paul Gauguin
Sizes starting at
$229

Woman Walking in an Exotic Forest

By Henri Rousseau
Sizes starting at
$219

Post-Impressionism (1020)

Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Manet.

Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brushstrokes and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

The Post Impressionists were dissatisfied with the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the systematic use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cezanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to "make of Impressionism something solid and durable, like the art of the museums". He achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the bright fresh colours of Impressionism. The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid 1880s and the early 1890s. Discontented with what he referred to as romantic Impressionism, he investigated Pointillism which he called scientific Impressionism before returning to a purer Impressionism in the last decade of his life. Vincent van Gogh used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post-Impressionist artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement. Younger painters during the 1890s and early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various stylistic categories, such as Fauvism and Cubism.

The term was coined in 1910 by Roger Fry in the title of an exhibition of modern French painters, organized by Fry in London. Most of the artists in the exhibition were younger than the Impressionists. Fry later explained: "For purposes of convenience, it was necessary to give these artists a name, and I chose, as being the vaguest and most non-committal, the name of Post-Impressionism. This merely stated their position in time relatively to the Impressionist movement." John Rewald, one of the first professional art historians to focus on the birth of early modern art, limited the scope to the years between 1886 and 1892 in his pioneering publication on Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin (1956): Rewald considered it to continue his History of Impressionism (1946), and pointed out that a "subsequent volume dedicated to the second half of the post-impressionist period"-Post-Impressionism: From Gauguin to Matisse-was to follow, extending the period covered to other artistic movements derived from Impressionism and confined to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rewald focused on outstanding early Post-Impressionists active in France: on Van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, Redon, and their relations as well as the artistic circles they frequented (or they were in opposition to):

* Neo-Impressionism: ridiculed by contemporary art critics as well as artists as Pointillism, Seurat and Signac would have preferred other terms: Divisionism for example.
* Cloisonnism: a short-lived term introduced in 1888 by the art critic Edouard Dujardin, was to promote the work of Louis Anquetin, and was later also applied to contemporary works of his friend emile Bernard.
* Synthetism: another short-lived term coined in 1889 to distinguish recent works of Gauguin and Bernard from that of more traditional Impressionists exhibiting with them at the Cafe Volpini.
* Pont-Aven School: implying little more than that the artists involved had been working for a while in Pont-Aven or elsewhere in Brittany.
* Symbolism: a term highly welcomed by vanguard critics in 1891, when Gauguin dropped Synthetism as soon as he was acclaimed to be the leader of Symbolism in painting.

Furthermore, in his introduction to Post-Impressionism, Rewald opted for a second volume featuring Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Rousseau "le Douanier", Les Nabis and Cezanne as well as the Fauves, the young Picasso and Gauguin's last trip to the South-Sea, it was to expand the period covered at least into the first decade of the 20th century-yet this second volume remained unfinished.In a basic sense, the term "Romanticism" has been used to refer to certain artists, poets, writers, musicians, as well as political, philosophical and social thinkers of the late 18th and early to mid 19th centuries. It has equally been used to refer to various artistic, intellectual, and social trends of that era. Despite this general usage of the term, a precise characterization and specific definition of Romanticism have been the subject of debate in the fields of intellectual history and literary history throughout the twentieth century, without any great measure of consensus emerging. Arthur Lovejoy attempted to demonstrate the difficulty of this problem in his seminal article "On The Discrimination of Romanticisms" in his Essays in the History of Ideas (1948), some scholars see Romanticism as essentially continuous with the present, some see in it the inaugural moment of modernity, some see it as the beginning of a tradition of resistance to the Enlightenment-a Counter-Enlightenment-and still others place it firmly in the direct aftermath of the French Revolution. An earlier definition comes from Charles Baudelaire: "Romanticism is precisely situated neither in choice of subject nor exact truth, but in the way of feeling."

Reviews and adjustments
Rewald wrote that "the term 'Post-Impressionism' is not a very precise one, though a very convenient one." Convenient, when the term is by definition limited to French visual arts derived from Impressionism since 1886. Rewald's approach to historical data was narrative rather than analytic, and beyond this point he believed it would be sufficient to "let the sources speak for themselves."

Rival terms like Modernism or Symbolism were never as easy to handle, for they covered literature, architecture and other arts as well, and they expanded to other countries.

* Modernism thus, is now considered to be the central movement within international western civilization with its original roots in France, going back beyond the French Revolution to the Age of Enlightenment.
* Symbolism, however, is considered to be a concept which emerged a century later in France, and implied an individual approach. Local national traditions as well as individual settings therefore could stand side by side, and from the very beginning a broad variety of artists practising some kind of symbolic imagery, ranged between extreme positions: The Nabis for example united to find synthesis of tradition and brand new form, while others kept to traditional, more or less academic forms, when they were looking for fresh contents: Symbolism is therefore often linked to fanatastic, esoteric, erotic and other non-realist subject matter.

To meet the recent discussion, the connotations of the term 'Post-Impressionism' were challenged again: Alan Bowness and his collaborators expanded the period covered to 1914, but limited their approach widely on the 1890s to France. Other European countries are pushed back to standard connotations, and Eastern Europe is completely excluded.

So, while a split may be seen between classical 'Impressionism' and 'Post-Impressionism' in 1886, the end and the extend of 'Post-Impressionism' remains under discussion. For Bowness and his contributors as well as for Rewald, 'Cubism' was an absolutely fresh start, and so Cubism has been seen in France since the beginning, and later in Anglosaxonia. Meanwhile Eastern European artists, however, did not care so much for western traditions, and proceeded to manners of painting called abstract and suprematic-terms expanding far into the 20th century.

Conclusion
According to the present state of discussion, Post-Impressionism is a term best used within Rewald's definition in a strictly historical manner, concentrating on French art between 1886 and 1914, and re-considering the altered positions of impressionist painters like Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Renoir, and others-as well as all new brands at the turn of the century: from Cloisonnism to Cubism. The declarations of war, in July/August 1914, indicate probably far more than the beginning of a World War-they signal a major break in European cultural history, too.

Read more